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How lithium batteries work
- Dec 05, 2018 -

Lithium metal battery:

A lithium metal battery is generally a battery using manganese dioxide as a positive electrode material, metallic lithium or an alloy metal thereof as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution.

Basic principle of lithium battery

Basic principle of lithium battery

Discharge reaction: Li+MnO2=LiMnO2


Lithium Ion Battery:

A lithium ion battery is generally a battery using a lithium alloy metal oxide as a positive electrode material, graphite as a negative electrode material, and a nonaqueous electrolyte.

The reaction occurring on the charged positive electrode is

LiCoO2==Li(1-x)CoO2+XLi++Xe-(electron)

The reaction occurring on the charging negative electrode is

6C+XLi++Xe- = LixC6

Rechargeable battery total reaction: LiCoO2+6C = Li(1-x)CoO2+LixC6


positive electrode

Cathode material: There are many optional cathode materials, and most of the mainstream products use lithium iron phosphate. Different cathode material comparisons:

LiCoO2     3.7 V    140 mAh/g
Li2Mn2O4   4.0 V    100 mAh/g
LiFePO4    3.3 V    100 mAh/g
Li2FePO4F   3.6 V    115 mAh/g

Positive electrode reaction: Lithium ions are embedded during discharge, and lithium ions are deintercalated during charging. When charging: LiFePO4 → Li1-xFePO4 + xLi+ + xe-discharge: Li1-xFePO4 + xLi+ + xe- → LiFePO4.


negative electrode

Anode material: Graphite is mostly used. New research has found that titanate may be a better material.

Negative electrode reaction: Lithium ion is deintercalated during discharge, and lithium ions are embedded during charging.

When charging: xLi+ + xe- + 6C → LixC6

When discharging: LixC6 → xLi+ + xe- + 6C