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Battery development history
- Jan 09, 2019 -

In 1746, Mason Brock of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands invented the "Leyden Bottle" for collecting electric charge. Because he saw that the electricity that was hard to collect was easily disappeared in the air, he wanted to find a way to save electricity. One day, he hung in the air with a barrel, connected with a motor and a barrel, and a copper wire was taken from the barrel and immersed in a glass bottle filled with water. He gave an assistant a Holding the glass bottle in hand, Mason Brock swayed the motor from the side. At this time his assistant accidentally touched the other hand with the barrel. He suddenly felt a strong electric shock and shouted. Mason Brock then exchanged with the assistant, let the assistant shake the motor, he took the water bottle in one hand and the gun in the other.


In 1780, the Italian anatomist Luigi Galvani, while doing frog anatomy, held different metal instruments in both hands, accidentally touching the frog's thighs at the same time. The muscles of the frog's legs immediately twitched as if they were twitching. It is stimulated by electric current, and if only a metal instrument is used to touch the frog, there is no such reaction. Galvani believes that this phenomenon occurs because of a kind of electricity generated inside the animal's body, which he calls "bio-electricity."


The discovery of Galvani has aroused great interest among physicists, who are competing to repeat the experiment of sputum in an attempt to find a way to generate electricity. The Italian physicist Volt said after several experiments: Galvani The term "bioelectricity" is not correct. The reason why the muscles of the frog can produce electricity is probably that some kind of liquid in the muscle is working. To demonstrate his point of view, Volt immersed two different metal sheets in various solutions for testing. As a result, it was found that as long as one of the two metal sheets chemically reacted with the solution, current could be generated between the metal sheets.


In 1799, the Italian physicist Volt dipped a zinc plate and a tin plate in salt water and found that a current was passed through the wires connecting the two metals. Therefore, he flattened a lot of flax or paper soaked in salt water between the zinc sheets and the silver sheets. When you touch both ends by hand, you will feel strong current stimulation. In this way, Volt succeeded in making the world's first battery, the "Volt Stack." This "volt stack" is actually a battery pack in series. It became the power source for early electrical experiments and telegraph machines.


In 1836, Daniel of the United Kingdom improved the "Volt Stack". He used dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte to solve the problem of battery polarization, and produced the first zinc-copper battery that was not polarized and could maintain a balanced current. Since then, these batteries have a problem that the voltage decreases with the use of time.image


When the voltage drops after the battery is used for a period of time, it can be given a reverse current to make the battery voltage rise. Because this battery can be recharged, it can be used repeatedly, so it is called "battery".


Also in 1860, France's George Leclanche also invented the predecessor of the world's widely used battery (carbon zinc battery). Its negative electrode is an alloy rod of zinc and mercury (the negative electrode of a zinc-volt prototype battery, which proves to be one of the best metals for the negative electrode material), and its positive electrode is a porous

The cup contains a mixture of ground manganese dioxide and carbon. A carbon rod was inserted into the mixture as a current collector. Both the negative electrode rod and the positive electrode cup were immersed in an ammonium chloride solution as an electrolytic solution. This system is called a "wet battery." The battery made by Lakeland was simple but cheap, so it was not until 1880 that the "dry battery" was replaced. The negative electrode is modified into a zinc can (ie, the outer casing of the battery), and the electrolyte becomes a paste rather than a liquid, which is basically the carbon zinc battery that we now know.Battery invented by Lakeland


In 1887, the Englishman Hellerson invented the earliest dry battery. The electrolyte of the dry battery is paste-like, does not leak, and is easy to carry, and thus has been widely used.


In 1890, Thomas Edison invented a rechargeable iron-nickel battery.